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Early Traders

Abbé Jean Beaudoin’s Journal, 1696–7, in Father Beaudoin’s War, ed. Alan F. Williams (Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1987).

Akenson, Donald H. If the Irish Ran the World: Montserrat, 1630–1730 (McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1997).

Block, Kristen, and Jenny Shaw. ‘Subjects without an Empire: The Irish in the Early Modern Caribbean’ in Past & Present no. 210 (2011), 33–60.

Byrne, Cyril. ‘The Waterford Colony in Newfoundland 1700–1850’ in Waterford History and Society, ed. William Nolan and Thomas P. Power (Geography Publications, 1992), 351–75.

Canny, Nicholas. ‘Writing Early Modern History: Ireland, Britain, and the Wider World’ in Historical Journal 46/3 (2003), 723–47.

Comber, Michelle. ‘Trade and Communication Networks in Early-Historic Ireland’ in Journal of Irish Archaeology 10 (2001), 73–91.

Cullen, Louis M. ‘The Irish Diaspora of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries’ in Europeans on the Move: Studies on European Migration 1500–1800, ed. Nicholas Canny (Clarendon Press, 1994), 113–49.

Cullen, Louis M. Irish Brandy Houses of Eighteenth-Century France (Lilliput Press, 2000).

Cullen, Louis M., John Shovlin and Thomas M. Truxes (eds). The Bordeaux-Dublin Letters, 1757: Correspondence of an Irish Community Abroad (Oxford University Press, 2013).

Cullen, Louis M. ‘The Irish Merchant Communities of Bordeaux, La Rochelle and Cognac in the Eighteenth Century’, in L.M. Cullen and P. Butel (eds), Négoce et Industrie en France et en Irlande aux XVIIIe et XIXe Siècles (CNRS, 1980), 51–63.

Dickson, David, Jan Parmentier and Jane Ohlmeyer (eds). Irish and Scottish Mercantile Networks in Europe and Overseas in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries (Academia Press, 2007).

Downing, John. A Brief Narrative concerning Newfoundland, 24 Nov. 1676, BL Egerton MS 2395, 560–563. Calendared in The Calendar of State Papers, Colonial: North America and the West Indies 1574–1739, vol. 9, 504–05. Available at https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/colonial/america-west-indies/vol9/pp494-507

Emigration: Papers relative to Emigration to the Australian Colonies. House of Lords Papers XI [i], vol. 11 (1850). Available at https://parlipapers-proquest-com.jproxy.nuim.ie/parlipapers/docview/t70.d75.hol_01096-000003?accountid=12309

Flavin, Susan, and Evan T. Jones (eds). Bristol’s Trade with Ireland and the Continent 1503–1601: The Evidence of the Exchequer Customs Accounts (Four Courts Press, 2009).

Friel, Ian. Maritime History of Britain and Ireland, c.400–2001 (British Museum Press, 2003).

Games, Alison. ‘Beyond the Atlantic: English Globetrotters and Transoceanic Connections’ in William and Mary Quarterly 63/4 (2006), 675–92.

Horning, Audrey. Ireland in the Virginian Sea: Colonialism in the British Atlantic (University of North Carolina Press, 2013).

Ireland, John de Courcy. Ireland and the Irish in Maritime History (Glendale Press, 1986).

Keough, Willeen. ‘“Good Looks Don’t Boil the Pot”: Irish-Newfoundland Women as Fish-(Producing) Wives’ in Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 37/3 (2012): 536–44.

Lorimer, Joyce (ed). English and Irish Settlement on the River Amazon 1550–1646 (Hakluyt Society, 1989).

Lyons, Marian. Franco-Irish Relations, 1500–1610: Politics, Migration, and Trade (Royal Historical Society, 2003).

Ó Ciosáin, Éamon. ‘Regrouping in Exile: Irish Communities in Western France in the Seventeenth Century’, in Robert Armstrong and Tadhg Ó hAnnracháin (eds), Community in Early Modern Ireland (Four Courts Press, 2006), 133–53.

O’Connor, Thomas (ed). The Irish in Europe 1580–1815 (Four Courts Press, 2001).

O’Connor, Thomas and Mary Ann Lyons (eds). Irish Communities in Early-Modern Europe (Four Courts Press, 2006).

O’Connor, Thomas, and Mary Ann Lyons (eds). Irish Migrants in Europe after Kinsale, 1602–1820 (Four Courts Press, 2003).

O’Reilly, William. ‘Ireland in the Atlantic World: Migration and Cultural Transfer’ in Thomas Bartlett and Jane Ohlmeyer (eds), The Cambridge History of Ireland vol. II: 1550–1730 (2018), 385–408.

Pope, Peter. Fish into Wine: The Newfoundland Plantation in the Seventeenth Century (University of North Carolina Press, 2004).

Simms, John Gerald, ‘The Irish on the Continent, 1691–1800’ in Theodore W. Moody and William E. Vaughan (eds), A New History of Ireland IV: Eighteenth-Century Ireland 1691–1800 (Clarendon Press, 1986), 629–56.

Talbott, Siobhan. ‘‘Such Unjustifiable Practices’?: Irish Trade, Settlement, and Society in France, 1688–1715’ in Economic History Review, 67/2 (2014), 556–77.

Truxes, Thomas M. (ed). Ireland, France, and the Atlantic in a Time of War: Reflections on the Bordeaux-Dublin Letters, 1757 (Routledge, 2017).

Worthington, David (ed). British and Irish Emigrants and Exiles in Europe, 1603–1688 (Brill, 2010).



Adair, Patrick. A True Narrative of the Rise and Progress of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland (1623–1670) (1866). Available at www.archive.org.

Amos, Keith. The Fenians in Australia, 1865–1880 (University of New South Wales Press, 1988).

Anbinder, Tyler. ‘Lord Palmerston and the Irish Famine Emigration’ in The Historical Journal 44/2 (2001), 441–69.

Andrighetti, Jim. ‘A Companion to Selected Irish-Related Archives in the Mitchell and Dixson Libraries, State Libraries of New South Wales’ in Saothar 24 (1999), 119–23.

Bankhurst, Benjamin, Ulster Presbyterians and the Scots Irish Diaspora, 1750–1764 (Palgrave, 2014).

Casey, John S. Journal of a Voyage from Portland to Fremantle on board the Convict Ship ‘Hougoumont’, ed. Martin Kevin Cusack (Dorrance Press, 1988).

Cashman, C.W. Sullivan III. Fenian Diary: Denis B. Cashman on Board the Hougoumont, 1867–1868 (Wolfhound Press, 2001).

Casway, Jerrold. ‘Irish Women Overseas, 1500–1800’ in Women in Early Modern Ireland, ed. Margaret McCurtain and Mary O’Dowd (Wolfhound Press, 1991), 112–32.

Corporaal, Marguérite, and Christopher Cusack. ‘Rites of Passage: The Coffin Ship as a Site of Immigrants’ Identity Formation in Irish and Irish American Fiction, 1855–85’ in Atlantic Studies 8/3 (2011), 343–59.

Fennell, Philip A. ‘History into Myth: The Catalpa’s Long Voyage’ in New Hibernia Review/Iris Éireannach Nua 9/1 (2005), 77–94.

Fennell, Thomas McCarthy. Voyage of the Hougoumont and Life at Fremantle, ed. Philip A. Fennell and Marie King (Chatto and Windus, 1971).

Fitzpatrick, David. Oceans of Consolation: Personal Accounts of Irish Migration to Australia (Cork University Press, 1994).

Fitzpatrick, David, ‘Emigration, 1801–70’ in A New History of Ireland vol. V: Ireland under the Union I: 1801–1870, ed. William E. Vaughan (Clarendon Press, 1989), 562–607.

Fitzpatrick, David. ‘Women and the Great Famine’ in Gender Perspectives in Nineteenth-Century Ireland: Public and Private Spheres, ed. Margaret Kelleher and James H. Murphy (Irish Academic Press, 1997), 50–69.

Hassam, Andrew. Sailing to Australia: Shipboard Diaries of Nineteenth-Century British Emigrants (Melbourne University Press, 1995).

Hassam, Andrew. No Privacy for Writing: Ship Board Diaries 1852–1879 (Melbourne University Press, 1995).

Hofstra, Warren R. (ed.). Ulster to America: The Scots-Irish Migration Experience, 1680–1830 (University of Tennessee Press, 2011).

Houston, Cecil J. and William J. Smyth. Irish Emigration and Canadian Settlement: Patterns, Links, and Letters (University of Toronto Press, 1990).

Lunney, Linde. ‘McGregor, James’ in Dictionary of Irish Biography, online edition.

Moloney Caball, Kay. The Kerry Girls: Emigration and the Earl Grey Scheme (The History Press, 2014).

McClaughlin, Trevor. Barefoot and Pregnant? Irish Famine Orphans in Australia (2 vols, Genealogical Society of Victoria, 1991).

McClaughlin, Trevor (ed.). Irish Women in Colonial Australia (Allen & Unwin, 1998).

McGowan, Mark. ‘Famine, Facts and Fabrication: An Examination of Diaries from the Irish Famine Migration to Canada’ in Canadian Journal of Irish Studies 33/2 (2007), 48–55.

McLoughlin, Dympna, ‘Workhouses and Irish Female Paupers 1840–70’ in Women Surviving: Studies in Irish Women’s History in the 19th and 20th Centuries, ed. Maria Luddy and Clíona Murphy (Poolbeg, 1990), 117–48.

Myers, Janet C. ‘Performing the Voyage Out: Victorian Female Emigration and the Class Dynamics of Displacement’ in Victorian Literature and Culture 29/1 (2001), 129–46.

O’Brien, Margaret J.R. (1988). ‘Cork Women for Australia: Assisted Emigration 1830–1840’ in Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society 93, no. 252 (1988), 21–30.

O’Reilly, William, ‘Ireland in the Atlantic World: Migration and Cultural Transfer’ in The Cambridge History of Ireland vol. II: 1550–1730, ed. Thomas Bartlett and Jane Ohlmeyer (Cambridge University Press, 2018), 385–408.

Robins, Joseph, ‘The Emigration of Workhouse Children to Australia in the Nineteenth Century’ in The Irish Emigrant Experience in Australia, ed. John O’Brien and Pauric Travers (Poolbeg, 1991).

Sullivan, C.W. III. ‘Reconsidering the Convict Ships’ in New Hibernia Review/Iris Éireannach Nua 12/4 (2008), 101–16.

Sullivan, C.W. III. ‘Folklore from Nineteenth-Century Irish Convict Diaries’ in Hungarian Journal of English and American Studies 18/1–2 (2012), 443–55.

Thiele, Frances. ‘Recreating the Polite World: Shipboard Life of Nineteenth-Century Lady Travellers to Australia’ in The La Trobe Journal 68 (2011), 51–62.


Anne Bonney (Bonny)

Appleby, John C. ‘Women and Piracy in Ireland: From Gráinne O’Malley to Anne Bonny’, Women in Early Modern Ireland, ed. Margaret MacCurtain and Mary O’Dowd (Wolfhound Press, 1991), 53–68.

Appleby, John C. Women and English Piracy, 1540–1720: Partners and Victims of Crime (Boydell, 2013).

Clarke, Frances. ‘Bonney (Bonny), Anne’ in Dictionary of Irish Biography, online edition.

Cordingly, David. ‘Bonny, Anne’ in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online edition.

Gosse, Phillip. The History of Piracy (Tudor, 1954).

Johnson, Captain Charles. A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pirates (1724). Reprinted, ed. by Arthur L. Hayward, in Key Writings on Subcultures 1535–1727: Classics from the Underworld, vol. iv (Routledge, 2002).

O’Driscoll, Sally.‘The Pirate’s Breasts: Criminal Women and the Meanings of the Body’ in The Eighteenth Century 53/3 (2012), 357–79.

Rediker, Marcus. ‘Liberty Beneath the Jolly Roger: The Lives of Anne Bonny and Mary Read, Pirates’ in Iron Men, Wooden Women: Gender and Seafaring in the Atlantic World, 1700–1920, ed. Margaret S. Creighton and Lisa Norling (Johns Hopkins Press, 1996), 1–33.

The Tryals of Captain John Rackam and Other Pirates (1721). Available at https://bloximages.newyork1.vip.townnews.com/postandcourier.com/content/tncms/assets/v3/editorial/6/89/68970990-ded9-11e8-be44-1b1f2868c03d/5bdcac97a7f1f.pdf.pdf

Wiesner, Merry E. Women and Gender in Early Modern Europe (2nd ed., Cambridge University Press, 2000).


Overseas Naval Services

Adams, Peter. Fatal Necessity: British Intervention in New Zealand, 1830–1847 (Auckland University Press, 1977).

Aguinis, Marcos. Admiral William Brown: Liberator of the South Atlantic (The Admiral Brown Society, 2006).

Brown, John and John Kessler. ‘American Biography: The Life of Commodore Barry’ in Portfolio Magazine (July 1813).

Courtney, W.P., revised by Elizabeth Baigent. ‘Prior, Sir James’ in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online edition.

Gurn, Joseph. Commodore John Barry: Father of the American Navy (Kenedy & Sons, 1933).

Hobson, Eliza. Mrs. Hobson’s Album, ed. Elsie Locke and Janet Paul (Auckland University Press, 1990).

Ireland, John de Courcy. The Admiral from Mayo: A Life of Almirante William Brown of Foxford: Father of the Argentine Navy (Edmund Burke Publisher, 1995).

Laughton, J.K. ‘Brown, William’ in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online edition.

Lunney, Linde. ‘Prior, Sir James’ in Dictionary of Irish Biography, online edition.

McAleer, John and Christer Petley (eds). The Royal Navy and the British Atlantic World, c.1750–1820 (Palgrave Macmillan, 2016).

McCabe, Desmond. ‘Brown, William’ in Dictionary of Irish Biography, online edition.

McGrath, Tim. John Barry: An American Hero in the Age of Sail (Westholme Publishing, 2010).

Murphy, David. ‘Barry, John’ in Dictionary of Irish Biography, online edition.

Orange, Claudia. ‘Hobson, William’ in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online edition.

Prior, James. Voyage along the Eastern Coast of Africa, to Mosambique, Johanna, and Quiloa; to St Helena, etc. (R. Phillips and Co., 1819).

Prior, Sir James. Voyage in the Indian Seas: in the Nisus Frigate, to the Cape of Good Hope, Isles of Bourbon, France, and Seychelles; to Madras; and the Isles of Java, St. Paul, and Amsterdam. During the Years 1810 and 1811 (1820). Available at https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=wu.89079716460;view=1up;seq=5

Prior, Sir James, Obituary, The British Medical Journal 2, no. 464 (20 Nov. 1869), 565.

Prior, Sir James, Obituary, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of London, 2nd series, 4 (1867–70), 472, 475–6. Available at https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.hw2a2o;view=1up;seq=524

Scholefield, G.H. Captain William Hobson (Oxford University Press, 1934).

Villanova University. John Barry manuscript collection; see https://digital.library.villanova.edu/Item/vudl:154320

Walsh, Micheline. ‘Unpublished Admiral Brown Documents in Madrid’ Irish Sword, 3/10: Homenaje al Almirante Brown (1957), 17–19.

Walsh, Patrick. ‘Ireland and the Royal Navy in the Eighteenth Century’ in The Royal Navy and the British Atlantic World, c.1750–1820, ed. John McAleer and Christer Petley (Palgrave Macmillan, 2016), 51–76.


Exploration & Innovation 

Breen, Aidan and Owen McGee. ‘Holland, John Phillip’ in Dictionary of Irish Biography, online edition.

Casement, Roger. ‘Freedom of the Seas’ (manuscript essay), c.1916. National Library of Ireland MS 49,154/9/1.

Devoy, John. Memorandum, 1923, repr. in Devoy’s Post Bag, ed. William O’Brien and Desmond Ryan (2 vols, 1948, 1953), vol. II, 514–15.

Doyle, D.J. ‘The Holland Submarine’ in An Cosantóir 7 (June 1947), 297–302.

Geoghegan, Patrick M. ‘Halpin, Robert Charles’ in Dictionary of Irish Biography, online edition.

Holland, John P. ‘The Submarine Boat and its Future’ in The North American Review, vol. 171, no. 529 (Dec. 1900), 894–903.

Kellett, Sir Henry. Journal of the Voyage of HMS Herald, 1845–50. National Maritime Museum, London: LBK/61.

Laughton, J.K. ‘Kellett, Sir Henry’ in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online edition.

Michael Holland to John Devoy, n.d. 1916, Oct. 1916, repr. in Devoy’s Post Bag, ed. William O’Brien and Desmond Ryan (2 vols, 1948, 1953), vol. II, 515–16, 516–17.

Mollan, Charles, William Davis and Brendan Finucane (eds). Irish Innovators in Science and Technology (Royal Irish Academy, 2002).

Morris, Richard Knowles. John P. Holland 1841–1914: Inventor of the Modern Submarine (US Naval Institute, 1966).

Murphy, David. The Arctic Fox: The Life of Sir Francis Leopold McClintock (The Collins Press, 2004).

Murphy, David. ‘Kellett, Sir Henry’ in Dictionary of Irish Biography, online edition.

Neatby, Leslie H. ‘Henry Kellett (1806-1875)’ in Arctic 40/3 (1987), 234–5. Available at https://arctic.journalhosting.ucalgary.ca/arctic/index.php/arctic/article/view/1773/1752.

Neatby, Leslie H. ‘Kellett, Sir Henry’ in Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. 10, University of Toronto/Université Laval, 2003–, accessed 28 January 2019. Available at http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/kellett_henry_10E.html.

Savours, Ann. The Search for the North West Passage (St Martin’s Press, 1999).

Seeman, B.C. Narrative of the Voyage of HMS Herald During the Years 1845–51 under the Command of Captain Henry Kellett (2 vols, 1853).

Smith, Michael. Tom Crean: An Illustrated Life: Unsung Hero of the Scott and Shackleton Expeditions (The Collins Press, 2006).

Smith, Michael, An Unsung Hero: Tom Crean – Antarctic Survivor (The Collins Press, 2001).


Beatrice Ethel Grimshaw

Ashley, Mike. ‘Grimshaw, Beatrice Ethel’ in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online edition.

Bannister, Ivy. ‘Grimshaw, Beatrice Ethel’ in Dictionary of Irish Biography, online edition.

Bulbeck, Chilla. Australian Women in Papua New Guinea: Colonial Passages 1920–1960 (Cambridge University Press, 1992).

Gardner, Susan. ‘For Love and Money: Early Writings of Beatrice Grimshaw, Colonial Papua’s Woman of Letters’ in New Literature Review (1977), 10–36.

Grimshaw, Beatrice. The Islands of the Blest (Union Steam Ship Company of New Zealand, n.d.).

Grimshaw, Beatrice. Three Wonderful Nations (Union Steam Ship Company of New Zealand, n.d.). Available at https://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-500187871/view?partId=nla.obj-500188321#page/n2/mode/1up

Beatrice Ethel Grimshaw, Broken Away (John Lane, 1907).

Grimshaw, Beatrice. From Fiji to the Cannibal Islands (Eveleigh Nash, 1907).

Grimshaw, Beatrice. In the Strange South Seas (Hutchinson & Co., 1907).

Grimshaw, Beatrice. Isles of Adventure (Herbert Jenkins Ltd, 1930).

Laracy, Eugénie and Hugh Laracy. ‘Beatrice Grimshaw: Pride and Prejudice in Papua’ in Journal of Pacific History 12/3 (1977), 154–75.

Mahony, Jane and Eve Patten. ‘‘Breaking Away’: Beatrice Grimshaw and the Commercial Woman Writer’, in Irish Women’s Writing, 1878–1922: Advancing the Cause of Liberty, ed. Anna Pilz and Whitney Standlee (Manchester University Press, 2018), 82–99.

Marshall, John J. ‘An Irish Authoress amongst the Head-Hunters’ in The Irish Book Lover 5/4 (Nov. 1913), 57–8.

McCotter, Clare. ‘Woman Traveller/Colonial Tourist’ in Irish Studies Review 15/4 (2007), 481–506.


Arctic Allied Convoys

Carter, Eric. Force Benedict: Churchill’s Secret Mission to Save Stalin (Hodder and Stoughton, 2014).

Doherty, Richard, Irish Volunteers in the Second World War (Four Courts Press, 2002).

Edwards, Elaine. ‘Medals for Heroes: Russian Honours Arctic Convoy Veterans’, Irish Times, 8 May 2010.

English, Eoin. ‘Russia Honours Irish Arctic Convoy Hero’, Irish Examiner, 26 Apr. 2010.

Forde, Frank, The Long Watch: The History of the Irish Mercantile Marine in World War Two (Gill and Macmillan, 1981).

Levy, James. ‘The Needs of Political Policy versus the Reality of Military Operations: Royal Navy Opposition to the Arctic Convoys, 1942’ in Journal of Strategic Studies 26/1 (2003), 36–52.

Little, Ivan. ‘Arctic Convoys’, Belfast Telegraph, 8 December 2016.

Richardson, Neil. Dark Times, Decent Men: Stories of Irishmen in World War II (O’Brien Press, 2012).

Ruegg, Bob, and Arnold Hague. Convoys to Russia: Allied Convoys and Naval Surface Operations in Arctic Waters, 1941–1945 (World Ship Society, 1992).

Image: Bigger & McDonald Collection, Derry Central Library. Courtesy of Libraries NI.